The Archaeology of the Holy Land: From the Destruction of Solomon's Temple to the Muslim Conquest

By Jodi Magness

This booklet offers an advent to the archaeology and heritage of historic Palestine - glossy Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian territories - from the destruction of Solomon's temple in 586 BCE to the Muslim conquest in 640 CE. specified cognizance is paid to the archaeology of Jerusalem and the second one Temple interval, in the course of Herod the good and Jesus. for every interval, the booklet bargains a old history for the Mediterranean global and the traditional close to East, in addition to the occasions in Palestine. significant websites similar to Masada, Caesarea Maritima, and Petra are tested in archaeological and old aspect, in addition to the cloth tradition - cash, pottery, glass, and stone vessels - of every interval. This e-book presents a radical evaluate of the archaeology of this traditionally shiny a part of the area.

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1–3 (Revised ¨ and edited by way of Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar, and Martin Goodman; Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1986). ᪉ 169 ᪉᪉᪉᪉ 8 THE EARLY ROMAN (HERODIAN) interval (40 B. C. E. –70 C. E. ) caesarea maritima, samaria-sebaste, herodian jericho, and herodium Caesarea Maritima heritage of the city The small city of Straton’s Tower used to be validated throughout the Persian interval, whilst the Palestinian coast was once ruled via the Phoenician kings of Tyre and Sidon. town used to be a part of the territory that Herod got from Octavian (Augustus Caesar) after the conflict of Actium in 31 B. C. E. , whilst Octavian reconfirmed Herod as king of Judea and elevated the dimensions of his country. Herod rebuilt Straton’s Tower as a exhibit Greco-Roman port urban and renamed it Caesarea. Herod’s institution of Caesarea the precedent of Alexander the good and his Hellenistic successors, yet rather than naming it after himself he named it in honor of Octavian – a super circulation that validated Herod’s loyalty to his new shopper. Herod’s urban of Caesarea had parts: the payment (on land), known as Caesarea Maritima, and the harbor, referred to as Sebaste (Sebastos is Greek for Augustus). a look at a map of Palestine unearths that the beach is comparatively even and lacks huge average harbors and anchorages. Herod’s new harbor crammed this hole, and the town speedy grew to become Palestine’s significant port urban. Caesarea had an extended heritage and flourished for hundreds of years. Its value elevated after Herod Archelaus was once faraway from rule in 6 C. E. , whilst it turned the seat of the neighborhood Roman governor (prefect or procurator) in Palestine (although Herod had a palace at Caesarea, Jerusalem was once the capital of his kingdom). After Paul used to be arrested, he was once imprisoned within the Roman governor’s palace at Caesarea for 2 years earlier than being shipped off to Rome for trial and (presumably) execution (Acts 23:23–24, 33). Caesarea used to be a Greco-Roman urban a hundred and seventy ᪉ The Early Roman (Herodian) interval (40 B. C. E. –70 C. E. ) eight. 1 Aerial view of Caesarea. Courtesy of Zev Radovan/BibleLandPictures. com. with a wide Gentile inhabitants and a minority of Jews. through Paul’s time, the population additionally integrated a few participants of the early church: “The subsequent day we left and got here to Caesarea; and we went into the home of Philip the evangelist, one of many seven, and stayed with him. . . . After nowadays we obtained prepared and commenced to move as much as Jerusalem. many of the disciples from Caesarea additionally got here alongside and taken us to the home of Mnason of Cyprus, and early disciple, with whom we have been to stick” (Acts 21:8, 15–16). Tensions among Jews and Gentiles at Caesarea contributed to the outbreak of the 1st Jewish insurrection in sixty six C. E. , whilst a pagan rite performed at the Sabbath close to the doorway to a synagogue sparked riots. Vespasian made Caesarea the headquarters of his operations in the course of the First insurrection. After the riot, Vespasian raised Caesarea to the rank of a Roman colony, a standing that conveyed definite advantages to the inhabitants, which now incorporated Roman army veterans.

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