By Rainer Gottlob M. D., Robert May M. D. (auth.)
Venous valves rank one of the smallest and so much tender organs of the human and animal our bodies - so why dedicate a complete ebook to them? We have been prompted to take action by means of numerous purposes. to start with we'd indicate the medical value of venous valves. within the pathogenesis of a couple of common ailments, akin to varicose veins or the post-thrombotic syndrome, venous valves are concerned because the underlying reason or at the least an element contributory to the indications. in accordance with Taheri et al. those venous illnesses take place ten instances extra often than arterial obliterations. Incompetence of venous valves additionally performs a causal function in varicocele, the main widespread reason for male infertility. yet not just pathogenetic purposes precipitated us to write down this publication. in additional fresh occasions there was a transforming into tendency to reconstruct sensible valve problems therapeutically; a number of surgical tools were constructed, that are significantly reviewed during this ebook. It used to be our target to sum up present wisdom with recognize to constitution and serve as of venous valves and to extend that knowl facet via findings of our personal. Examinations of semi-thin sections and unilayered en-face arrangements have hardly ever been released to date, and systematic experiences of the ultrastructure by way of electron-microscopy weren't to be present in the literature. we're very thankful, hence, to Dr. Silvana Geleff for having undertaken this kind of examine upon our suggestion.
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Additional info for Venous Valves: Morphology, Function, Radiology, Surgery
In the endothelial cells of both human and animal venous valves all organelles and cellular elements typical of such cells are found. In particular there are a large number of transport vesicles and "coated vesicles". The number of Weibel- Pala de bodies varies (Fig. 29 E). As in the venous wall itself, the endothelial cells are attached to each other by "closed junctions". The superficial borders of cytoplasm of both the parietal and luminal layers of endothelial cells of the venous valve are gathered in overlapping marginal folds in a regular manner: In almost all of the cells large quantities of filaments, the diameters of which corresponde to those of the "intermediate filaments", are to be found (cf.
For that reason it is difficult to judge how far, from the insertion of the cusp (where they may be found in single small groups), they reach into the free portion of the cusp. 2. 1. Collagenous Fibrils The main portion of the fibrillar material In the venous valve is represented by collagenous fibrils. In "thin" areas of the valve, usually only one layer of fibrils, running in a parallel course and combined to a bundle or a lamella, is Fig. 30 A-C A Under light-optical microscopy (insert) positively stained elastic fibers (arrow) can be detected in sparse quantities by classic methods of elastica staining (in this case by Weigert's method of resorcin-fuchsin staining modified by Romeis).
In this region the venous wall is particularly thin. Although parietal valves with 1 to 5 cusps have been reported, in human beings bicuspid valves are the rule. Still, tricuspid - as well as unicuspid - valves do occur occasionally. Von Kiigelgen found quadricuspid valves in renal veins. Von Kiigelgen (1958) argues that Macroscopic Anatomy 29 unicuspid valves may originate by regression of one cusp of a bicuspid valve. In humans we have found a rudimentary tricuspid venous valve in only one instance (Fig.
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